Before discussing the Kubernetes approach to networking, it is worthwhile to contrast it with the “normal” way networking works with Docker.
By default, Docker uses host-private networking, so containers can talk to other containers only if they are on the same machine. In order for Docker containers to communicate across nodes, there must be allocated ports on the machine’s own IP address, which are then forwarded or proxied to the containers. This obviously means that containers must either coordinate which ports they use very carefully or ports must be allocated dynamically.
Coordinating ports across multiple developers is very difficult to do at scale and exposes users to cluster-level issues outside of their control. Kubernetes assumes that pods can communicate with other pods, regardless of which host they land on. We give every pod its own cluster-private-IP address so you do not need to explicitly create links between pods or map container ports to host ports. This means that containers within a Pod can all reach each other’s ports on localhost, and all pods in a cluster can see each other without NAT.
If you created a default deny policy in the previous section, delete it by running:
kubectl delete -f ~/environment/calico_resources/default-deny.yaml
Create an nginx Pod, and note that it has a container port specification:
cat <<EoF > ~/environment/run-my-nginx.yaml apiVersion: apps/v1 kind: Deployment metadata: name: my-nginx spec: selector: matchLabels: run: my-nginx replicas: 2 template: metadata: labels: run: my-nginx spec: containers: - name: my-nginx image: nginx ports: - containerPort: 80 EoF
This makes it accessible from any node in your cluster. Check the nodes the Pod is running on:
kubectl apply -f ~/environment/run-my-nginx.yaml kubectl get pods -l run=my-nginx -o wide
The output being something like this:Check your pods’ IPs:
kubectl get pods -l run=my-nginx -o yaml | grep podIP
Output being like:
So we have pods running nginx in a flat, cluster wide, address space. In theory, you could talk to these pods directly, but what happens when a node dies? The pods die with it, and the Deployment will create new ones, with different IPs. This is the problem a Service solves.
A Kubernetes Service is an abstraction which defines a logical set of Pods running somewhere in your cluster, that all provide the same functionality. When created, each Service is assigned a unique IP address (also called clusterIP). This address is tied to the lifespan of the Service, and will not change while the Service is alive. Pods can be configured to talk to the Service, and know that communication to the Service will be automatically load-balanced out to some pod that is a member of the Service.
You can create a Service for your 2 nginx replicas with kubectl expose:
kubectl expose deployment/my-nginx
This specification will create a Service which targets TCP port 80 on any Pod with the run: my-nginx label, and expose it on an abstracted Service port (targetPort: is the port the container accepts traffic on, port: is the abstracted Service port, which can be any port other pods use to access the Service). View Service API object to see the list of supported fields in service definition. Check your Service:
As mentioned previously, a Service is backed by a group of Pods. These Pods are exposed through endpoints. The Service’s selector will be evaluated continuously and the results will be POSTed to an Endpoints object also named my-nginx. When a Pod dies, it is automatically removed from the endpoints, and new Pods matching the Service’s selector will automatically get added to the endpoints. Check the endpoints, and note that the IPs are the same as the Pods created in the first step:
kubectl get svc my-nginx
kubectl describe svc my-nginx
You should now be able to curl the nginx Service on
kubectl run -i --tty load-generator --image=busybox /bin/sh
To go into the cluster and then try with the ClusterIP:
wget -q -O - 10.100.225.196
The output will beTo exit, just make a ctrl+D