nodeSelector provides a very simple way to constrain pods to nodes with particular labels. The affinity/anti-affinity feature, currently in beta, greatly extends the types of constraints you can express. The key enhancements are:
The affinity feature consists of two types of affinity, “node affinity” and “inter-pod affinity/anti-affinity”. Node affinity is like the existing nodeSelector (but with the first two benefits listed above), while inter-pod affinity/anti-affinity constrains against pod labels rather than node labels, as described in the third item listed above, in addition to having the first and second properties listed above.
Node affinity was introduced as alpha in Kubernetes 1.2. Node affinity is conceptually similar to nodeSelector – it allows you to constrain which nodes your pod is eligible to be scheduled on, based on labels on the node.
There are currently two types of node affinity, called
You can think of them as “hard” and “soft” respectively, in the sense that the former specifies rules that must be met for a pod to be scheduled onto a node (just like nodeSelector but using a more expressive syntax), while the latter specifies preferences that the scheduler will try to enforce but will not guarantee. The “IgnoredDuringExecution” part of the names means that, similar to how nodeSelector works, if labels on a node change at runtime such that the affinity rules on a pod are no longer met, the pod will still continue to run on the node.
Thus an example of
requiredDuringSchedulingIgnoredDuringExecution would be “only run the pod on nodes with Intel CPUs” and an example
preferredDuringSchedulingIgnoredDuringExecution would be “try to run this set of pods in availability zone XYZ, but if it’s not possible, then allow some to run elsewhere”.
Node affinity is specified as field nodeAffinity of field affinity in the PodSpec.
Let’s see an example of a pod that uses node affinity:
We are going to create another label in the same node that in the last example:
kubectl label nodes ip-192-168-15-64.us-west-2.compute.internal azname=az1
And create an affinity:
cat <<EoF > ~/environment/pod-with-node-affinity.yaml apiVersion: v1 kind: Pod metadata: name: with-node-affinity spec: affinity: nodeAffinity: requiredDuringSchedulingIgnoredDuringExecution: nodeSelectorTerms: - matchExpressions: - key: azname operator: In values: - az1 - az2 preferredDuringSchedulingIgnoredDuringExecution: - weight: 1 preference: matchExpressions: - key: another-node-label-key operator: In values: - another-node-label-value containers: - name: with-node-affinity image: k8s.gcr.io/pause:2.0 EoF
This node affinity rule says the pod can only be placed on a node with a label whose key is
azname and whose value is either
az2. In addition, among nodes that meet that criteria, nodes with a label whose key is another-node-label-key and whose value is another-node-label-value should be preferred.
Let’s apply this
kubectl apply -f ~/environment/pod-with-node-affinity.yaml
And check if it worked with
kubectl get pods -o wide
NAME READY STATUS RESTARTS AGE IP NODE NOMINATED NODE nginx 1/1 Running 0 35m 192.168.10.13 ip-192-168-15-64.us-west-2.compute.internal <none> with-node-affinity 1/1 Running 0 29s 192.168.14.121 ip-192-168-15-64.us-west-2.compute.internal <none>
Now let’s try to put the affinity in another node We are going to put the label in a different node so first, let’s clean the label and delete the Pod.
kubectl delete -f ~/environment/pod-with-node-affinity.yaml kubectl label nodes ip-192-168-15-64.us-west-2.compute.internal azname-
We are putting the label to the node ip-192-168-86-147.us-west-2.compute.internal now
kubectl label nodes ip-192-168-86-147.us-west-2.compute.internal azname=az1 kubectl apply -f ~/environment/pod-with-node-affinity.yaml
And check if it works with
kubectl get pods -o wide
NAME READY STATUS RESTARTS AGE IP NODE NOMINATED NODE nginx 1/1 Running 0 43m 192.168.10.13 ip-192-168-15-64.us-west-2.compute.internal <none> with-node-affinity 1/1 Running 0 42s 192.168.68.249 ip-192-168-86-147.us-west-2.compute.internal <none>
You can see the operator In being used in the example. The new node affinity syntax supports the following operators:
In, NotIn, Exists, DoesNotExist, Gt, Lt. You can use
DoesNotExist to achieve node anti-affinity behavior.
The weight field in
preferredDuringSchedulingIgnoredDuringExecution is in the range 1-100. For each node that meets all of the scheduling requirements (resource request, RequiredDuringScheduling affinity expressions, etc.), the scheduler will compute a sum by iterating through the elements of this field and adding “weight” to the sum if the node matches the corresponding MatchExpressions. This score is then combined with the scores of other priority functions for the node. The node(s) with the highest total score are the most preferred.